ACER (Maple) Aceraceae A. Species
HABITAT: Native to Europe, Asia, N. America. Zones dependent on species. (see below).
USES: Shade, ornamental.
HABIT: Deciduous, ornamental trees varying in height, leaf shape dependent on species. Fall foliage turns brilliant shade of yellow, orange and red. Seeds are winged. Fruits are unimpressive.
Leaves opposite with veins arranged in a finger-like fashion. Most leaves are lobed or toothed.
SEED GERMINATION AND CULTURE: Seed may be sown outdoors in fall to winter over or place in bottom of refrigerator at 40°F for six weeks, then sow in flats of Park's Grow Mix with sand added or a sandy soil mixture, transplanting when large enough to handle, or sow direct to peat pots or pellets and shift to larger 4" peat pots when roots emerge from pot walls.
Grow on in a protected (Cold Frame, etc.) spot until seedling trees are well-established and roots emerge from larger pot walls. Do not allow maple seeds to dry out. Sow as soon as seeds can be collected.
Set out in spring or fall in ordinary soil, preferably not acid, with humus compost, leaf mold, peat moss) added. Most Maples thrive in open, sunny areas.
Some varieties such as Japanese Maples do best in filtered sunshine but should be protected from winds. Japanese Maples lend themselves well to containers. Prune only when necessary to thin out crowded or dead branches and to shorten very long branches which spoil the tree shape. Prune during summer only. Keep well watered and feed with a fertilizer such as 10-10-5 at the rate of 2 lbs. per 1" of trunk diameter. Punch holes in soil around the tree 18-24" apart and 12-18" deep, placing holes at the drip line (2/3 of the distance from the trunk to the outer edge of the leaf line). Water well and keep sprayed for insects and diseases.
SPECIES: A. argutum 24'. Zone 5. Narrow, erect branches. 5-lobed dense leaves. Japan.
A. buergerianum - A. trinerue: (Trident Maple) 20'. Zone 6. Rounded. 3-lobed leaves. Japan.
A. campestre (Hedge Maple) 25'. Zone 5. Rounded. Dense foliage. Yellow fall color. Europe, W. Asia.
A. carpinifolium (Hornbeam Maple) 30'. zone 5. Vase-shaped. Dense foliage. Bright Green leaves. Fall: brownish-yellow. Japan.
A. circinatum (Vine Maple) 25'. Zone 5. White/purple flowers, April. Winged seeds. Wide-spreading with dense foliage. Fall: Red to orange. British Columbia-California.
A. ginnala (Amur Maple) 20'. Zone 2. Winged red seed. Upright and rounded habit. Dense foliage with fine-textured leaves. Fall: scarlet. China, Manchuria, Japan. Fragrant flowers.
A. griseum (Paperbark Maple) 25'. Zone 5. Rounded. Peeling bark and paper-thin strips. Foliage: open, compounded leaves with 3 leaflets. Difficult to propagate. W. China.
A. negundo (Box Elder) 60'. Zone 2. Wide spreading, open foliage. Compound leaves with 3-5 leaflets. Fast growing. Tolerates drought. Splits easily. E. and Central N. America.
A. palmatum (Japanese Maple) 20'. Zone 5. Rounded, mound-like. Dense green to red foliage, 5-9 lobed. Fall: scarlet. Korea, Japan. Many varieties varying in hardiness, size and texture.
A. platanoides (Norway Maple) 90'. Zone 3. Small yellow flowers before leaves, late April. Rounded, very dense, lobed bright green foliage. Fall: bright yellow. Milky sap. Rapid growth. Europe, Caucasus.
A. pseudoplatanus (Sycamore Maple) 90'. Zone 5. Winged seed. Wide spreading. Dense foliage with large lobed leaves. Withstands salt spray. Europe, W. Asia.
A. rubrum (Red, Swamp Maple) 25'. Zone 3. Red, small, profuse flowers, early April. Winged, bright red seed. Habit: Pyramidal or cylindrical when young, developing a round head at maturity. Dense foliage. Fall: brilliant red. Tolerates boggy areas. E. and Central N. America.
A. saccharinum (Silver, White, Soft Maple) 120'. Zone 3. Wide spreading. Growth: fast. Breaks easily. Leaves deeply lobed, bright green above, silvery-white beneath. Fall: clear, yellow. Quebec to Florida.
A. saccharum (Rock, Sugar Maple) 120'. Zone 3. oval to rounded habit. Dense foliage with lobed leaves. Fall: yellow to orange to red. Eastern N. America. Sap yields maple syrup. Growth rate: slow.
INSECTS: Borers, Gall Mites; Use an approved insecticide such as Malathion, Diazinon.Canker Worms; use an approved insecticide, such as Sevin, Thuricide.
Scale, Aphids: Use an approved insecticide, such as Malathion.
DISEASES: Tar spot; Rake and burn infected leaves.
Verticillium Wilt; Destroy, no control.
Anthracnose, Canker; treat soil with a fumigant.
PROPAGATION: Budding (July), grafting (March), layering, seeds.