ANEMONE (wind flower) Ranunculaceae A. species
HABITAT: Native to Southern Europe and Greece. Zones 3-10 dependent upon species.
USES: Perennial border, rock garden, wildflower garden, cut flowers, indoor forcing.
HABIT: Colorful perennials or rhizomes that grow in mounds with deeply lobed or finely cut foliage. Flowers appear in spring or fall depending on the species.
SEED GERMINATION: Sow seeds indoors and cover lightly in late winter, 8-10 weeks before the last spring frost. Maintain a night temperature around 55°-60°F. for 15-20 days for germination. Transplant to 2-1/4 inch pots when 4 leaves develop and plant outdoors about 6 weeks later. Seeds can also be planted outdoors in early spring or late fall while temperatures are cool. Allow 18 months for plants to reach flowering size from seeds.
CULTURE: Plant in full sun or partial shade in a rich but very well drained soil. Add extra leaf mold, compost or peat moss along with coarse sand to loosen heavy soils. Plant 1 to 2 inches deep with the slightly pointed and rough end up; space 3-4 inches apart. If the top cannot be distinguished, plant horizontally and cover with 2 inches of soil. Water well during hot, dry periods. In northern areas, plant rhizomes in spring only; in southern areas, plant rhizomes in fall or very early spring to provide bloom before hot weather arrives. In colder areas, mulch with straw, salt marsh hay, pine needles or evergreen limbs after the first fall freeze. Remove the mulch as new growth begins in the spring to prevent rotting of the rhizomes.
INDOOR CULTURE FOR ANEMONE CORONARIA: Soak rhizomes in warm water for 24 hours before planting. Use a packaged soil mix like Park's Grow Mix or make a soil mix of equal parts of rich, loamy topsoil, coarse sand, and peat moss. Plant rhizomes 1 inch deep and 3-4 inches apart. Water sparingly until top growth begins. Provide night temperatures of 45°-50°F. and day temperatures of 60°-70°F. and at least 4-5 hours of direct sunlight. Feed with a 15-30-15 liquid fertilizer mixed according to label directions. Flowering begins in about 3 months. As plants go dormant in early summer, allow the soil to dry and store the rhizomes in their pots in a cool basement or garage with temperatures around 50°-60°F.
SPECIES: A. blanda (Hardy Anemone). Grows 4-8 inches tall with white, pink, or blue flowers in early spring. Provide partial shade in warm areas. Space 3 inches apart. Zones 5-8. Add extra winter mulch in colder areas.
A. canadensis (Meadow Anemone): 2 feet fiberous rooted plant with large, white flowers. Bloom in June. Light green foliage. Native North America. Hardy zone 3.
A. caroliniana (Carolina Anemone): 1 foot plant with cream to purple flowers 1 1/2 inches across blooming in April and May. Tuberous rooted native to North America. Hardy zone 6.
A. coronaria (Poppy or Florist's Anemone) Grows 18 inches tall with 2-1/2 inch poppy-like single or double flowers in shades of pink, red, white and blue. Blooms in late spring or early summer. The most popular varieties are St. Brigid and DeCaen. Commonly used as a cut flower; use a sharp knife or shears to cut stems close to the ground rather than pulling the stems. Space 6-8 inches apart. Zones 8-10.
A. fulgens (Flame Anemone). Grows 12 inches tall with scarlet red flowers in early spring. Not as cold hardy as A. blanda but can be grown in protected areas with an extra winter mulch.
A. japonica (also A. hybrida-Japanese Anemone). Grows 2-1/2 - 3 feet tall with white rose, or red daisy-like flowers in the fall. Performs best in light shade but will tolerate full sun if watered regularly. Space 8-12 inches apart. Zones 5-8. In colder zones, add a winter mulch of straw, hay, pine needles or evergreen limbs.
A. pulsatilla (Pasque Flower): 1 foot native of Europe and Asia with bell-shaped blue or reddish purple flowers about 2 inches across flowering in April followed by interesting seed pods which resemble tiny, feathery mops. Finely cut foliage. Other varieties available in white, pinks, reds, or bluish flowers. Hardy zone 5.
INSECTS: Blister Beetles and Aphids: Control with Malathion or Sevin.
DISEASES: Leaf spot: Control with a copper fungicide.
Rust: Avoid planting near Prunus species (cherry, peach or plum trees).
PROPAGATION: Seeds, division (late summer), root cuttings.