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AMELIANCHIER Rosaceae A. species (Shadblow, Juneberry, Service Berry)

HABITAT:  N. Am., Europe, Asia.  Zone 4-10.

USES: Ornamental, fall color, naturalized plantings.

HABIT:  Early blooming, slender branched, airy, delicate trees with smooth, light gray bark and bearing short spikes of 1" white flowers and dark green leaves.  The flowers are followed by tiny apple-shaped red or purple, sweet edible fruits.  Leaves turn yellow, orange, or red in the fall.  Height dependent upon species.

SEED GERMINATION AND CULTURE:  Sow seeds outdoors in protected spot (Cold Frame, etc.) in October, winter over and germinate in the spring.  Seed may also be placed in a refrigerator at 40°F. for 16 weeks and then sown in peat pots or pellets and shifted to 4" pots when roots emerge from pot walls.  Grow on in a protected spot (Cold Frame, etc.) until seedling trees are well established and roots fill the larger pot walls then shift to permanent location, setting out in fall or early spring in full sun or light shade and in a moist, well-drained soil with humus (compost, leaf mold, peat moss) added.  Little pruning or fertilizer is needed.  Keep moist, however.

SPECIES:  A. canadensis (Juneberry, Downy, or Shadblow Service Berry) 60'.  Zone 4.  White, late April.  Maroon-purple, berrylike, edible fruit.  Upright, often narrow habit.  Grayish turning dark green foliage.  Fall:  Yellow, red, orange.  E. USA.
A. grandiflora (Apple Service Berry) 25'.  Zone 4.  1 1/2" white, early May.  Red to black berrylike, edible berries. Wide spreading.  Light gray bark.  Dense foliage.
A. laevis (Allegheny Service Berry) 36'.  Zone 4. White early May.  Red berrylike, July spreading, often shrubby. Light gray, smooth bark.  Young leaves purplish.  Fall:  yellow, orange, red.  Distinctive winter bark.  E.N. Am.

INSECTS:  Lacewing: No control necessary.  Beneficial. Red Spider, Scale: Use an approved insecticide such as Malathion.

DISEASES:  Fire Blight:  Use an approved fungicide such as Maneb, Zineb.

PROPAGATION:  Division (fall), grafting, softwood cuttings, seed.